Full texts of the publications can be requested through ResearchGate, or by sending an email at

Schoor, C. (2021). Probing into populism’s core: An analysis of the deep semio-linguistic structure of populism. Critical Discourse Studies, 18 (2), DOI:

Schoor, C. (2020). Caught between populism, elitism, and pluralism: A method for political speech analysis. In M. Kranert (ed.), Discursive approaches to populism across disciplines: The return of populists and the people. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-55038-7_14  Link to publisher’s page

Schoor, C. (2020). The politics of style: Political performance caught between populism, elitism, and pluralism (Doctoral Dissertation, Maastricht University). DOI:

Schoor, C. (2020). The people as heroes, animals, or the country? Metaphor in populist and non-populist political discourse. In: Metaphor in political conflict. Populism and discourse. R. Breeze and C. Llamas (Eds.) Pamplona, SP: EUNSA. ISBN 978-84-313-3467-3

Schoor, C. (2019). Where the real people meet the real elite: Exploring mixes of populism with elitism. Populism, 2(2), 184–206. DOI:

Schoor, C. (2017). In the theater of political style: Touches of populism, pluralism, and elitism in speeches of politicians. Discourse & Society, 28(6), 657–676. DOI: 10.1177/0957926517721082 Pre-published version

Schoor, C. (2015). Political metaphor, a matter of purposeful style: On the rational, emotional, and strategic purposes of political metaphor. Metaphor and the Social World 5(1), 82-101. DOI: 10.1075/msw.5.1.05sch  |  Pre-published version

In Dutch

Carola Schoor (2011). Van oprotpremie tot kopvoddentaks. Metafoorgebruik in veertig jaar immigratiedebat. In: Filosofie & Praktijk, Jrg 32, nr.2. pp. 33‐47 (in Dutch). Article | Summary in newspaper

Carola Schoor’s Dutch website gives information on the political communication method she developed based on her dissertation; the Archetype model. Politicians can mirror themselves in six political identities or styles, that all require a different rhetorical appraoch.